Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine

An Interdisciplinary Approach

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ISSN print
1874-5393
ISSN online
1875-8894
Volume
13; 4 issues
Status
Last issue (13:2) online on 03 July 2020
Next issue
13:3 scheduled for October 2020
Back volumes
1-12
Subject
Pediatrics, Rehabilitation & Assistive Technology
INSTITUTIONAL SUBSCRIPTION FOR 2020 €436 / US$533 Excluding VAT
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The Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine honors Founding Editor Jacob A. Neufeld, who passed away in 2017, for his dedication, leadership and contributions to the journal.

The Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine (JPRM): An Interdisciplinary Approach is designed to parallel the multidisciplinary teams caring for children, adolescents and adults with childhood-onset physical disabilities and complex care needs worldwide. Published quarterly, topics include, and are not limited to, cerebral palsy, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, spina bifida, limb deficiency, muscular dystrophy, stroke, cancer, developmental delays, and rare disorders. Furthermore, the journal welcomes papers dedicated to pediatric rehabilitation from a global health perspective.

The aim of JPRM is to engage a diverse group of international experts with the goal of providing readers with comprehensive information regarding children and adolescents requiring rehabilitation. JPRM brings together specialists from medicine, nursing, psychology, social work, nutrition, child life, family centered care, and occupational, physical, and speech therapy. For manuscript submissions, authorship involving at least two different specialties is encouraged, although not required, to facilitate a transdisciplinary and collaborative approach. Manuscripts are blinded and peer reviewed including biostatistical analysis. Authors are invited to submit original research, systematic and scoping reviews, guidelines, protocols, care pathways, case reports, book reviews, commentaries, editorials, and dates for future conferences.

Editor-in-Chief
Elaine L. Pico, MD, FAAP, FAAPM & R
UCSF Benioff Children's Hospital Oakland
747 52nd St, Oakland, CA 94609
USA
Email: Elaine.Pico@ucsf.edu

Founding Editor
Jacob A. Neufeld †

Managing Editor
Sara Tinsley
Email: jprmst@gmail.com

Consulting Editor
Beckett Shea-Shumsky
Email: jprmbss@gmail.com

Associate Editors
Academic
Colleen A. Wunderlich
Palmetto Health - University of South Carolina Medical Group
Columbia, SC, USA
Email: colleen.wunderlich@palmettohealth.org

Case Reports
Rochelle Dy
Baylor College of Medicine
Houston, TX, USA
Email: rochelledy@yahoo.com

Cerebral Palsy
Deborah Gaebler-Spira
Shirley Ryan Abilitylab
Chicago, IL, USA
Email: dgaebler@sralab.org

Michael M. Green
University of Utah
Salt Lake City, UT, USA
Email: mike.green@hsc.utah.edu

Commentary
Virginia S. Nelson
University of Michigan Medical School
Ann Arbor, MI, USA
Email: vsnelson@med.umich.edu

Complex Care
Rishi K. Agrawal
Children's Hospital of Chicago
Chicago, IL, USA
Email: ragrawal@luriechildrens.org

Education
Margaret A. Turk
SUNY Upstate Medical University
Syracuse, NY, USA
Email: turkm@upstate.edu

Global Health and Spina Bifida
Jonathan Castillo
Texas Children's Hospital
Baylor College of Medicine
Missouri City, TX, USA
Email: jcporter@texaschildrens.org

Spina Bifida
Timothy Brei
Seattle Children's
Seattle, WA, USA
Email: Timothy.Brei@seattlechildrens.org

Quality Control
Rita N. Ayyangar
Michigan Medicine
Ann Arbor, MI, USA
Email: ayyangar@umich.edu

Systematic Reviews
Kat Kolaski
Departments of Orthopaedic Surgery, Neurology, and Pediatrics Wake Forest Baptist Health
Winston-Salem, NC, USA
Email: kkolaski@wakehealth.edu

Social Media Editor
Sruthi Pandipati Thomas
Baylor College of Medicine/ Texas Children's Hospital
Houston, TX, USA
Email: spthomas@texaschildrens.org

Facebook: @JPedRehabMed
Twitter: @JPedRehabMed
Instagram: @JPedRehabMed

Editorial Board
Assistive Technology & Augmentative Communication
Diane Bryen
Temple University
Philadelphia, PA, USA

Sudha Kaul
International Society for Augmentative and Alternative Communication
Kolkata, West Bengal, India

Biostatistics
Kristen Campbell
University of Colorado
Denver, CO, USA

Kate Wan-Chu Chang
University of Michigan
Ann Arbor, MI, USA

Rickey Tivis
Idaho State University
Meridian, ID, USA

Cardiology
Ravi Ram Thiagarajan
Children’s Hospital Boston
Boston, MA, USA

Child Life
Kathryn A. Davitt Mot
Cook Children's Medical Center
Fort Worth, TX, USA

Dentistry
Brian J. Sanders
Pediatric Dentistry Indiana
University School of Dentistry
Indianopolis, IN, USA

Emergency Medicine
George L. Foltin
Maimonides Medical Center
Brooklyn, NY, USA

Epidemiology
Marshalyn Yeargin-Allsopp
Developmental Disabilities Branch, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD), CDC
Atlanta, GA, USA

Exercise Medicine
Daniel K. Halvorsen II
The Kohl'd Power^3 Exercise Med Clinic
St. Paul, MN, USA

Gastroenterology
Virginia Stallings
Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia
Philadelphia, PA, USA

William J. Byrne
Oregon Health & Science University
Portland, OR, USA

Genetics
Joann Bodurtha
Johns Hopkins Hospital
Baltimore, MD, USA

Health Policy
Adnan Hyder
Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics
Baltimore, MD, USA

Hematology/Oncology
Jonathan L. Finlay
Children's Center for Cancer & Blood Diseases
Los Angeles, CA, USA

Intensive Care
R. Scott Watson
Seattle Children's Hospital
Seattle, WA, USA

Legal
Robert D. Dinerstein
Washington College of Law
Washington, D.C., USA

Neonatology
Jay Paul Goldsmith
Tulane University
New Orleans, LA, USA

Neurology
Jerry Clayton
Children's Hospital Colorado
Aurora, CO, USA

Florian Heinen
University of Munich
Munich, Germany

Susan T. Iannaccone
Children's Medical Center
Dallas, TX, USA

Warren Marks
Cook Children’s Medical Center
Fort Worth, TX, USA

Neuropsychology
Seth A. Warschausky
University of Michigan
Ann Arbor, MI, USA

Neuroradiology
Nadja Kadom
Boston Medical Center
Boston, MA, USA

Neurorehabilitation
Lucia Willadino Braga
SARAH University for Rehabilitation Services
Brasilia, Brazil

Neurosurgery
Samuel Browd
Seattle Children's Hospital
Seattle, WA, USA

Alexa Canady
Florida State University College of Medicine
Tallahasee, FL, USA

Karin Muraszko
University of Michigan Health System
Ann Arbor, MI, USA

Obstetrics and Gynecology
Doug R. Wilson
Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute
Calgary, Canada

Otolaryngology
Robin T. Cotton
Cincinatti Children's Hospital Medical Center
Cincinatti, OH, USA

Peds/PM&R
Frank Pidcock
Kennedy Krieger Institute
Baltimore, MD, USA

Perinatology
Andrew Dean Hull
University of California San Diego
San Diego, CA, USA

Physical Therapy
Roslyn Boyd
The University of Queensland Australia
Herston, QLD, Australia

Deborah E. Thorpe
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Chapel Hill, NC, USA

Richard L. Segal
Medical University of South Carolina
Charleston, SC, USA

Policy
Alana Officer
World Health Organization
Geneva, Switzerland

Prosthetics/Orthotics
Robert Lipschutz
Northwestern University
Prosthetics-Orthotics Center
Chicago, IL, USA

Pulmonology
Robert C. Cohn
Dayton Children's Hospital
Dayton, OH, USA

Rheumatology
David D. Sherry
The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
Philadelphia, PA, USA

Speech Pathology
Harrison N. Jones
Duke University Medical Center
Durham, NC, USA

Urology
Laurence S. Baskin
UCSF Benioff Children's Hospital Oakland and San Francisco, CA, USA

SUBMISSION OF MANUSCRIPT

By submitting my article to this journal, I agree to the IOS Press License to Publish, the IOS Press Privacy Policy and the IOS Press general publication ethics guideline.

Authors are requested to submit their manuscript electronically to the journal’s editorial management system. Submissions should be a Microsoft Word file, uploaded as one file with tables and figures included. Please be sure to complete all fields of the online submission form. The corresponding author will receive an email notification when the manuscript is accessioned by the editorial office.

Publication Fee
JPRM does not charge a publication fee.

Color figures
It is possible to have figures printed in color, provided the cost of their reproduction is paid for by the author. See Preparation of Manuscripts for the required file formats.

Open Access option
The IOS Press Open Library® offers authors an Open Access (OA) option. By selecting the OA option, the article will be freely available from the moment it is published, also in the pre-press module. In the Open Library® the article processing charges are paid in the form of an Open Access Fee. Authors will receive an Open Access Order Form upon acceptance of their article. Open Access is entirely optional.
See also our website for more information about this option IOS Press Open Library®.

Cover Letter

All manuscripts submitted should be accompanied by a cover letter that clearly defines:

  1. A corresponding author, with full contact information including address, telephone and fax numbers, and email address.
  2. Why the manuscript will be valuable to the journal’s readers.
  3. How the manuscript will add to the currently available medical literature.
  4. Any conflicts of interest.

Manuscripts are blinded and peer reviewed with appropriate feedback. Statistical analysis is reviewed by a biostatistician for accuracy. Readers are encouraged to submit and/or suggest case reviews, commentaries, editorials, original research, conference schedules, or reviews.

CATEGORIES OF MANUSCRIPTS

JPRM accepts the following article types for submission. For submissions that do not fall under one of the following categories, please contact the editorial office. Please check that your submission adheres to the word, figure, and table limits.

  1. Scientific research article: Original research investigations that advance the field of pediatric rehabilitation medicine. LIMITS: 6,000 words; 7 Tables; 7 Figures.
  2. Literature Review: JPRM accepts thorough, systematic literature reviews that are relevant to pediatric rehabilitation medicine and in line with the journal’s aims & scope. LIMITS: 7,000 words; 7 Tables; 7 Figures.
  3. Brief Report: A Brief Report is typically a short synopsis of an original study or evaluation/novel report of a clinical case or case series. This article type is intended not as a means of presenting preliminary data, but rather to present unexpected observations that may encourage further research. A structured abstract is required. LIMITS: 1000-1500 words; 3 tables and/or figures.
  4. Case Report: A acceptable Case Report will explain the diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of an individual case which has not been previously published in the medical literature. Administered treatments should be supported by previously published research. LIMITS: 2,000 words; 4 Tables; 4 Figures.
  5. Commentary: A short opinion piece representing the author’s viewpoint on a particular aspect of pediatric rehabilitation medicine. LIMITS: 2,000 words; 2 Tables; 2 Figures.

PREPARATION OF MANUSCRIPTS

Manuscript organization and style of presentation

Manuscripts should be prepared with 1-inch margins and double spacing throughout, including the abstract, footnotes, and references. Every page of the manuscript, including the title page, references, tables, etc., should be numbered. However, in the text no reference should be made to page numbers; if necessary, one may refer to sections. Excessive use of italics and bold face should be avoided.

Quality of English writing

Manuscripts must be written in English. Authors whose native language is not English are advised to seek the advice of a native English speaker before submitting their manuscripts. Should the authors with to seek professional advice, International Science Editing offers a language and copyediting service to all scientists who want to publish their manuscript in scientific peer-reviewed periodicals.

Please avoid the use of first person, such as ‘I’, ‘we’, or ‘our’. When possible, manuscripts should be written in third person.

Statistics

Any statistical analysis included in a manuscript should be reviewed carefully before submission, preferably by a statistician. All manuscripts that include statistical analysis will be peer reviewed by a biostatistician.

Units

All measurements should be reported as the SI, i.e., the units based on the meter, kilogram, second, etc. This also applies to hematological and clinical chemistry values.

Manuscripts should be organized in the following order:

  • Title page
  • Body of text (divided by subheadings)
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Tables
  • Figure captions
  • Figures

Headings and subheadings should be numbered and typed on a separate line, without indentation.

Title page

The title page should provide the following information:

  • Title: clear, descriptive, and not too long.
  • Abstract: clear, descriptive, self-explanatory, and not longer than 200 words. The abstract should also be suitable for publication in abstracting services. Scientific Research Articles must have an abstract formatted as follows: Purpose, Methods, Results, Conclusion.
  • Keywords

In order to preserve anonymity, author names should not be included on the title page until the manuscript is accepted. At that point, you will be requested to add the name(s) of author(s) without abbreviation, full affiliation(s), and the complete address of the corresponding author, including telephone number, fax number, and email address.

Materials and Methods

Manuscripts including a literature review must clearly state whether or not it was performed systematically. Details regarding participant randomization, rater blinding, unexpected complications that altered the original study design, etc. should be clearly defined in the Methods section of the manuscript.

Statement of Informed Consent and Human/Animal Rights

All studies involving human and/or animals must include the statement that the Institutional Review Board(IRB), and/or Animal Care Board, and/or Ethics Committee Approval from the respective institution has been obtained. Informed consent must be obtained for all human subjects and appropriately described in the manuscript. Authors may be asked to provide an electronic copy of the appropriate approval to the editorial office prior to publication. The 1996 Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) for manuscripts from United States institutions must be followed. The statement of informed consent and human/animal rights should be included in the Methods section of the manuscript.

Acknowledgements

Any contributors to the manuscript that do not meet the authorship requirements should be included in the Acknowledgements section. The Statement of Funding, if applicable, should also be included here with the funding source and grant number for the study. NIH/federally funded studies are to be submitted to Pubmed Central (http://www.nihms.nih.gov/db/sub.cgi) by IOS Press within 12 months.

If there are no acknowledgments, do still include this section and insert "The authors have no acknowledgments".

Conflict of Interest

A conflict of interest is defined as any financial remuneration received within the last two years greater than $500 in employment/affiliation, grants, or funding (non-profit or government), consulting, honorarium, speakers bureaus, stocks, expert testimony, royalties, or patents. All authors are required to disclose any conflicts of interest.

If there is no Conflict of interest then still state that “The authors have no conflicts of interest to report”.

Ethical Considerations
Please inform in this section the Institutional Review Board approval number and date to your research. In case informed consent was obtained please also inform it in this section. Studies exempt from Institutional Review Board approval should inform the reason for exemption, e.g. “This study, as a literature review, is exempt from Institutional Review Board approval”.

References

Authors are requested to use the Vancouver citation style. All publications cited in the text should be presented in a list of references at the end of the manuscript. List the references in the order in which they appear in the text. Only articles published or accepted for publication should be listed in the reference list. Submitted articles can be listed as (author(s), unpublished data). If an article has a DOI, this should be provided after the page number details. The number is added after the letters 'doi'. Manuscripts will not be considered if they do not conform to the Vancouver citation guidelines.

The following are examples of correct citations in the Vancouver citation style:

[1] Rose ME, Huerbin MB, Melick J, Marion DW, Palmer AM, Schiding JK, et al. Regulation of interstitial excitatory amino acid concentrations after cortical contusion injury. Brain Res. 2002; 935(1-2): 40-6. doi: 10.1016/s0006-8993(02)02445-9

[2] Murray PR, Rosenthal KS, Kobayashi GS, Pfaller MA. Medical microbiology. 4th ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 2002.

[3] Berkow R, Fletcher AJ, editors. The Merck manual of diagnosis and therapy. 16th ed. Rahway (NJ): Merck Research Laboratories; 1992.

[4] Meltzer PS, Kallioniemi A, Trent JM. Chromosome alterations in human solid tumors. In: Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, editors. The genetic basis of human cancer. New York: McGrawHill; 2002. p. 93113.

[5] Canadian Cancer Society [homepage on the Internet]. Toronto: The Society; 2006 [updated 2006 May 12; cited 2006 Oct 17]. Available from: www.cancer.ca/.

Tables & Figures

Tables

Tables should be numbered as Table 1, Table 2, etc. All tables must be referred to in the text. Each table should be provided on a separate page of the manuscript. Tables should not be included in the text. Each table should have a brief and self-explanatory title. Column headings should be brief, but sufficiently explanatory. Standard abbreviations of units of measurement should be included in parentheses. Vertical lines should not be used to separate columns’ instead leave some extra space between the columns. Any explanations essential to the understanding of the table should be given in brief footnotes at the bottom of the table.

Figures

Number figures as Fig. 1, Fig 2, etc. and refer to all of them in the text. Each figure should be provided on a separate sheet. Figures should not be included in the text. Each figure should have a self-explanatory caption.

Color figures can be included in the print version, provided the cost of their reproduction is paid for by the author. The online version has no extra charges for color figures. JPRM prefers figures and images in color, but either black & white or color figures/images are acceptable.

For the file formats of the figures please take the following into account:
- line art should be have a minimum resolution of 600 dpi, save as EPS or TIFF
- grayscales (including photos) should have a minimum resolution of 300 dpi (no lettering), or 500 dpi (when there is lettering); save as tiff
- do not save figures as JPEG, this format may lose information in the process
- do not use figures taken from the Internet, the resolution will be too low for printing
- do not use color in your figures if they are to be printed in black & white, as this will reduce the print quality (note that in software often the default is color, you should change the settings)
- for figures that should be printed in color, please send a CMYK encoded EPS or TIFF
Figures should be designed with the format of the page of the journal in mind. They should be of such a size as to allow a reduction of 50%. Photographs should have good contrast and intensity.

REQUIRED STATEMENTS AND FORMS

Statement of Authorship

The journal adheres to the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICJME) (http://www.icmje. org) definition of authorship. All corresponding authors are required to provide a signed copy of the authorship declaration form to the editorial office.

Clinical Trial Registration

The journal adheres to the ICJME policy for registration of all trials in a public trials registry that is acceptable to the ICMJE (http://www.icmje.org/faq_clinical.html). In June 2007 the ICMJE adopted the World Health Organization’s definition of a clinical trial as: “any research study that prospectively assigns human participants or groups of humans to one or more health related interventions to evaluate the effects on health outcomes”. Above statements supersede all previous policies and are effective immediately.

Photo Release

Authors must submit a release for any photographs with identifying information.

Financial Disclosure & Authorship Agreement

All authors are required to fill in, sign, and send back the Financial Disclosure & Authorship Agreement. Please find it here.

Institutional Review Board, Animal Care Board, and/or Ethics Committee Approval

Authors must keep on record approval forms from the respective board/committee. Informed consent forms from study participants should also be kept on file.

Copyright Permission

Authors of manuscripts including previously copyrighted material (quotations, figures, images, etc.) must submit written permission from the original copyright holder. Please see below for further details.

COPYRIGHT

Copyright of your article

Authors submitting a manuscript do so on the understanding that they have read and agreed to the terms of the IOS Press Author Copyright Agreement.

Quoting from other publications An author, when quoting from someone else's work or when considering reproducing figures or table from a book or journal article, should make sure that he is not infringing a copyright. Although in general an author may quote from other published works, he should obtain permission from the holder of the copyright if he wishes to make substantial extracts or to reproduce tables or other figures. If the copyright holder is not the author of the quoted or reproduced material, it is recommended that the permission of the author should also be sought. Material in unpublished letters and manuscripts is also protected and must not be published unless permission has been obtained. A suitable acknowledgement of any borrowed material must always be made.

PROOFS

The corresponding author will receive a PDF proof and be asked to check this proof carefully (the publisher will execute a cursory check only). Corrections other than printer's errors, however, should be avoided. Costs arising from such corrections will be charged to the authors.

PURCHASES

The corresponding author of a contribution to the journal will receive a complimentary PDF Author’s Copy of the article, unless otherwise stated. This PDF copy is watermarked and for personal use only. A free PDF copy will not be provided for conference proceedings and abstract issues. An order form for a PDF file without watermark, reprints or additional journal copies will be provided along with the PDF proof. If you wish to order reprints of a previously published article, please contact the publisher for a quotation. IOS Press, Fax: +31 20 687 0019. Email: editorial@iospress.nl. Authors are entitled to 25 % discount on IOS Press books. See Author's discount (25%) on all IOS Press book publications.

KUDOS

Authors of published articles (non-prepress, final articles) will be contacted by Kudos. Kudos is a service that helps researchers maximize the impact and visibility of their research. It allows authors to enrich their articles with lay metadata, add links to related materials and promote their articles through the Kudos system to a wider public. Authors will receive no more than three emails: one invitation and a maximum of two reminders to register for the service and link the published article to their profile. Using and registering for Kudos remains entirely optional. For more information, please have a look at our authors section.

HOW TO PROMOTE YOUR WORK

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How Rehabilitation Impacts Research and Care of Patients with Cerebral Palsy

03 Aug 2020 - Amsterdam, NL – Cerebral palsy (CP) is one of the most common developmental movement disorders in children. In this special issue of the Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine (JPRM), experts present advancements made by rehabilitation medicine in the care of patients with CP, improving quality of life and research....

Immigration and Transition: Emerging Trends in Spina Bifida Care

15 Jan 2020 - Amsterdam, NL – In this collection of articles in the Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine (JPRM) experts highlight the emerging trends in spina bifida care in response to challenges faced by spina bifida patients and their physicians due to demographic shifts in age and ethnicity and other societal factors....

New Insights: Improving Function, Independence and Quality of Life of Individuals with Cerebral Palsy

22 Aug 2019 - Amsterdam, NL – Cerebral palsy (CP) is one of the most common movement disorders in children. A growing number of caregivers worldwide are caring for children, adolescents and adults with child-onset CP....

Recent Advances in Spina Bifida Care Extend Life and Improve Quality of Life

27 Feb 2019 - Amsterdam, NL – Spina bifida (myelomeningocele) is the most common, permanently disabling birth defect compatible with life. In a collection of articles, published in the Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine, experts describe important advances made in the care of spina bifida patients that extend life and improve quality of life. ...

International Group of Spina Bifida Experts Shapes Future Research and Shares Insights for Practical Care

01 Mar 2018 - A Special Issue of the Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine is designed to inform and inspire researchers and clinicians caring for patients with this complex condition...

Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine Peer Review Policy

The Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine is a peer-reviewed journal. Articles submitted to the journal undergo a double blind peer review process. This means that the identity of the authors is not known to the reviewers and the identity of the reviewers is not communicated to the authors.

All submitted manuscripts are subjected to initial appraisal by the Editor in Chief and, if found suitable for further consideration, to rigorous peer review by independent, anonymous expert referees. Reasons to reject a paper in the pre-screening process could for example be that the work does not fall within the aims and scope, the writing is of poor quality, the instructions to authors were not followed or the presented work is not novel.

Papers deemed suitable to be reviewed will be assigned to a handling editor. The handling editor will then select reviewers to comment on the work and might consider including the reviewers suggested by the author(s) or not. Editors and reviewers are asked to excuse themselves from reviewing a submission if a conflict makes them unable to make an impartial scientific judgment or evaluation. Conflicts of interest include but are not limited to: collaboration with the authors in the past three years; any professional or financial affiliations that may be perceived as a conflict of interest; a history of personal differences with the author(s).

As a standard policy, decisions are based on three reviews, including a statistical review when relevant. In some specific circumstances a minimum of two reviews may be deemed sufficient to make a decision on a paper. The Editor in Chief strives to ensure a typical turnaround time of 3 months.

Reviewers are asked to judge a paper on at least:

  • Significance to Field
  • Relevance to Journal
  • Methodology
  • Data Analysis
  • Literature Review
  • Writing Style/Clarity

Based on the received reviews the handling editor will propose to the Editor in Chief a recommendation:

  • Accept
  • Minor revisions required
  • Major revisions required
  • Revise and Resubmit
  • Reject

They mean the following:

  1. The manuscript is suitable for publication and only requires minor polishing; thus, no further reviews are requested.
  2. The authors are required to make moderate changes to their manuscript. The manuscript becomes acceptable for publication if the changes proposed by the reviewers and editors are successfully addressed. The revised manuscript will be examined by the Editor in Chief and possibly sent back to all (or a selection of) reviewers for a second round of reviews. Authors are requested to provide a letter to the reviewers detailing the improvements made for the resubmission.
  3. The manuscript cannot be accepted for publication in its current form. However, a major revision addressing all issues raised by the reviewers may be acceptable for publication. The revised manuscript will undergo a second round of review. Authors are requested to provide a letter to the reviewers detailing the improvements made for the resubmission.
  4. In its current form, the manuscript is not suitable for publication. A resubmission would require substantial revisions and is only encouraged in special cases. The resubmitted manuscript will be considered as a new submission.
  5. The manuscript is rejected as it is deemed to be out of scope, not relevant, or not meeting the journal’s quality standards in terms of significance, novelty, and/or presentation.

Authors are notified by the Editor in Chief, whose decision is final.