Journal of Future Robot Life

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ISSN print
ISSN online
2; 2 issues
Last issue (1:1) online on 15 May 2020
Next issue
1:2 scheduled for August 2021
Back volumes
Artificial Intelligence, Computer Science, Robotics

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Open For Submissions – The Journal of Future Robot Life is now open for submissions! Please submit via:

Open Access Fee Waiver – Journal of Future Robot Life is an Open Access journal and we are pleased to announce that the open access fees are waived for papers submitted until 31 December 2021.

What will robots be like ten, twenty and more years from now? What will they be able to accomplish? How will human–robot relationships have advanced? What place in society will be occupied by robots? These are just some of the questions which will be debated in the pages of this new publication – the Journal of Future Robot Life.

Computer science and artificial intelligence (AI) have had a huge impact on society, an impact that will only increase with further advances in hardware and software technologies. Robots are the most remarkable product of these developments in computing and AI, many of them being designed in a humanlike form and endowed with humanlike capabilities: talking, hearing, seeing, moving and performing complex tasks such as dancing, conducting an orchestra, rescuing victims at disaster sites, playing musical instruments, and beating a world champion at chess.

As robots become more humanlike in their appearance and their capabilities, and as they come to be regarded more and more as our companions and assistants in all aspects of daily life, different questions beg to be answered. We need to contemplate what life will be like when robots can imitate human behavior sufficiently to be regarded, in some sense, as our equals. And when we humans have adapted our ways of life in order to interact fully with robots as alternative people, and to benefit fully from our relationships with them, such questions on the future of human–robot interactions and human–robot relationships are the raison d’etre of this journal. What civil rights and legal rights should robots be granted? What are the ethics of humankind’s interactions with robots? Will robots have empathy? Will their personalities and emotions mimic our own? Will robots be programmed with social intelligence, or can they acquire it through a learning process? Will robots be alive in any humanlike sense, and if so, how?

The Journal of Future Robot Life will attempt to answer these questions and many more. The topics which we group under the umbrella phrase “future robot life” are many and varied, and the list will doubtless expand with time. We shall start with the following:

Animal–robot interfaces
Are robots alive?
Biological behaviors
Companion robots
Evolutionary robots
Human–robot reproduction
Human–robot interfaces
Implanted cyborg technologies
Laws relating to robots
Nanorobots in medicine
Plant–robot interfaces
Robot emotions
Robot ethics
Robot personalities
Robot reproduction
Robot rights
Robot–human parents
Robots as doctors
Robots as economists
Robots as lovers
Robots as politicians
Robots as psychiatrists/therapists
Robots as spouses
Robots as teachers
Robots in Entertainment
Robots in government
Robots on the battlefield
Social intelligence in robots
Swarm robot behavior.


Professor Adrian David Cheok
Imagineering Institute, Johor, Malaysia
i-University Tokyo, Japan

Dr. David Levy
London NW3 2LD, UK

Thomas Heinrich Musiolik
University of the Arts Berlin

Editorial Board

Dr. Hairul Azhar Abdul-Rashid, Multimedia University, Selangor, Malaysia
Dr. Jafri Malin Abdullah, Brain Behaviour Cluster Universiti Sains Malaysia
Dr. Anu Acharya, Mapmygenome India Limited, India
Dr. Mohd Ashraf Ahmad, Faculty of Electrical and Electronics, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Malaysia
Dr. David Al-Dabass, School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University, UK
Dr. Itimad Raheem Ali, University of Information Technology and Communications, Iraq
Dr. Gary Ang, University of Toronto, Canada
Dr. Maurizio Balistreri, Department of Philosophy and Educational Sciences, University of Turin, Italy
Dr. Ng Kian Bee, LKC School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
Dr. Dustin Bessette, Post University, USA
Dr. Phaedra Boinodiris, IBM Academy of Technology, USA
Dr. Alexios Brailas, Department of Psychology, Panteion University, Greece
Dr. Philip Branch, Swinburne University of Technology, Australia
Dr. James Candon, EMEA Legal Counsel, Brussels, Belgium
Dr. Gerard Casale, TYLT Ventures, USA
Dr. Eva Cerezo, Department of Computer Science and Systems Engineering, University of Zaragoza, Spain
Dr. Puruesh Chaudhary, Futures researcher & Strategic narrative professional, Pakistan
Dr. Paolo Ciancarini, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Bologna, Italy
Dr. Jose Cordeiro, HumanityPlus, Venezuela
Prof. Kevin Curran, Faculty of Computing, Engineering & Built Environment, Ulster University, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom
Dr. Roman Danylak, University of Technology Sydney, Australia
Dr. Amol Deshmukh, University of Glasgow, School of Computing Science, Glasgow, UK
Dr. Carlos Fernandes, RecordTV, Singapore
Dr. Marta Ferraz, European Space Agency, The Netherlands
Prof. Dr. Martin Gaedke, Department of Computer Science, TU Chemnitz, Germany
Prof. Andrea Gaggioli, Dipartimento di Psicologia, Università Cattolica di Milano, Italy
Dr. Ine Gevers, Niet Normaal Foundation, The Netherlands
Dr. Leonardo Gomes, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of São Paulo, Brazil
Dr. Eleanor Hancock, Kiiroo, The Netherlands
Dr. Farid Haque, Erly Stage Studios, United Kingdom
Dr. Peter Ho, SESTO Robotics, Singapore
Dr. Chiung Ching Ho, Multimedia University, Cyberjaya, Malaysia
Prof. Yap Kim Hui, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
Prof. Dr. Christopher Jahns, Exponential University, Germany
Dr. Siddharth Jain, Playware Studios, Singapore
Dr. Kosala Jayasundara, MAS Innovations, Sri Lanka
Dr. Verena Kantere, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), University of Ottawa, Canada
Prof. John Karigiannis, GE Aviation, Canada
Dr. Klara Kedem, Ben-Gurion University, Israel
Dr. Adamantios Koumpis, Institut Digital Enabling, Berner Fachochschule, Switzerland
Dr. Bernard Lahousse, Foodpairing® Company, Gent, Belgium
Dr. Vemuri Lakshminarayana, Arupadai Veedu institute of Technology, Chennai, India
Dr. Vali Lalioti, Royal College of Art, London, United Kingdom
Dr. James Law, James Law Cybertecture International Holdings Limited, Hong Kong
Dr. Carlos Miranda Levy, Civil Innovation Lab, France
Dr. Fotis Liarokapis, Faculty of Informatics, Masaryk University, Czech Republic
Dr. Nicola Liberati, Department of Philosophy, University of Twente, The Netherlands
Prof. Dr. Lau Sian Lun, Department of Computing and Information Systems, Sunway University, Malaysia
Ms. Nika Mahnič, Human-Computer Interaction and Human-Robot Interaction Professional, Slovenia
Dr. Sarah Mautino, Pubblica Istruzione, Portugal
Prof. Andy Miah, The University of Salford, United Kingdom
Dr. Arikia Millikan, LadyBits, Germany
Prof. Roger Moore, Department of Computer Science, University of Sheffield, United Kingdom
Dr. Wolfgang Muench, LASALLE College of the Arts, Singapore
Dr. Elaine Ng, The Fabrick Lab, Hong Kong
Dr. Victor Ng-Thow-Hing, Software Engineer, USA
Dr. Maurice Op de Beek, FeelRobotics, The Netherlands
Dr. Edy Portmann, University of Fribourg, Switzerland
Prof. Milena Radzikowska, Faculty of Business and Communication Studies, Mount Royal University, Canada
Dr. Jorge Lopes Ramos, ZU-UK, United Kingdom
Dr. Riley Richards, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, USA
Dr. Deborah Richards, Department of Computing, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Acquarie University, Australia
Prof. Marco Roccetti, Computer Science and Engineering Department, University of Bologna, Italy
Dr. Elham Saadatian, Thinkific, Vancouver, Canada
Prof. Sunanda Sangwan, IFMR-GSB, KREA University, India
Dr. Carmen Santoro, Human Interfaces in Information Systems Lab, CNR Research Area of Pisa, Italy
Dr. Thomas Schulz, Seed Vault, Spain
Prof. Ali Selamat, Malaysia Japan International Institute of Technology (MJIIT), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Dr. Tan Joo Seng, College of Business, Nanyang Business School, Singapore
Dr. Ross Smith, Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce, United Kingdom
Dr. Tharaka Soysa, ANC Education, Sri Lanka
Dr. Theodore Spyropoulos, Minimaforms, United Kingdom
Dr. Jeff Tang, Open University of Hong Kong, China
Prof. Mathura Prasad Thapliyal, HNB Garhwal Central University, Srinagar(Garhwal), India
Dr. Charles Thomas, Ideal City Design Group, Canada
Dr. Vahab, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Shahrood, Iran
Dr. Olof van Winden, TodaysArt, The Netherlands
Dr. Eleanor Watson, AI Faculty, Singularity University, USA
Dr. Markus Weilguny, Aroma Pictures, Vienna, Austria
Dr. Blay Whitby, Centre for Cognitive Science, University of Sussex, United Kingdom
Dr. Yorick Wilks, Department of Computer Science, The University of Sheffield, United Kingdom
Dr. Lang Ling Yap, Human Resources Professional, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Submission of Manuscripts

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Authors are requested to submit their manuscript via:

Journal of Future Robot Life is an Open Access journal. Published papers are currently not subjected to an Open Access fee. They will be published freely available for download through at no charge to the authors.

Required files
After an article has been accepted for publication the following electronic files are required: a text editable file of the article, such as MsWord or LateX. When using LaTeX, please use the JFRL style file available at: Also send a pdf version of the LaTeX file as well as separate files of all figures (if any); see "Preparation of Manuscripts" for the required file formats.

Colour figures
In the online version all figures in an article will appear in colour. It is possible to have figures printed in colour also in the paper version of the journal, provided the cost of their reproduction is paid for by the author. If your article is accepted for publication you will be provided with information regarding this option in the galley proofing stage. See "Preparation of Manuscripts" for the required file formats.

IOS Pre-press
Journal of Future Robot Life publishes all articles online with 'pre-press' (meaning they are published online shortly after acceptance, before being published in an eventual issue of the journal). The pre-press articles are the uncorrected galley proof versions of the article and are published online shortly after the proof is created. Pre-press articles are fully citable using the article DOI number. As soon as the pre-press article is assigned to an issue, final author corrections will be incorporated and final bibliographic information will be added. The pre-press version will then be replaced by the updated, final version.

Organization of the paper and style of presentation
Manuscripts must be written in English. Authors whose native language is not English are advised to seek the advice of a native English speaker, before submitting their manuscripts. Through Peerwith you can get an offer from a language and copyediting expert to ensure your paper has the appropriate level of English. You may expect to receive free and non-binding quotes from experts in your field of research within 24 hours after submitting a request.

Manuscripts should be prepared with wide margins and double spacing throughout, including the abstract, footnotes and references. Every page of the manuscript, including the title page, references, tables, etc., should be numbered. However, in the text no reference should be made to page numbers; if necessary, one may refer to sections. Try to avoid the excessive use of italics and bold face.

Manuscripts should be organized in the following order:

  • Title page
  • Body of text (divided by subheadings)
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Tables
  • Figure captions
  • Figures Headings and subheadings should be numbered and typed on a separate line, without indentation. SI units should be used, i.e., the units based on the metre, kilogramme, second, etc.

Title page
The title page should provide the following information:

  • Title (should be clear, descriptive and not too long)
  • Name(s) of author(s); please indicate who is the corresponding author
  • Full affiliation(s)
  • Present address of author(s), if different from affiliation
  • Complete address of corresponding author, including tel. no., fax no. and e-mail address
  • Abstract; should be clear, descriptive, self-explanatory and not longer than 200 words, it should also be suitable for publication in abstracting services
  • Keywords.

Number as Table 1, Table 2, etc., and refer to all of them in the text. All tables should be contained within the manuscript itself, and embedded in the text. Each table should have a brief and self-explanatory title. Column headings should be brief, but sufficiently explanatory. Standard abbreviations of units of measurement should be added between parentheses. Vertical lines should not be used to separate columns. Leave some extra space between the columns instead. Any explanations essential to the understanding of the table should be given in footnotes at the bottom of the table.

Number figures as Fig. 1, Fig. 2, etc., and refer to all of them in the text. All figures and other graphics should be contained within the manuscript itself, and embedded in the text. Colour figures can be included, provided the cost of their reproduction is paid for by the author. For the file formats of the figures please take the following into account: - line art should be have a minimum resolution of 600 dpi, save as EPS or TIFF - grayscales (incl photos) should have a minimum resolution of 300 dpi (no lettering), or 500 dpi (when there is lettering); save as tiff - do not save figures as JPEG, this format may lose information in the process - do not use figures taken from the Internet, the resolution will be too low for printing - do not use colour in your figures if they are to be printed in black & white, as this will reduce the print quality (note that in software often the default is colour, you should change the settings) - for figures that should be printed in colour, please send a CMYK encoded EPS or TIFF Figures should be designed with the format of the page of the journal in mind. They should be of such a size as to allow a reduction of 50%. On maps and other figures where a scale is needed, use bar scales rather than numerical ones, i.e., do not use scales of the type 1:10,000. This avoids problems if the figures need to be reduced. Each figure should have a self-explanatory caption. The captions to all figures should be typed on a separate sheet of the manuscript. Photographs are only acceptable if they have good contrast and intensity.

Authors are requested to use the APA (American Psychological Association) citation style. APA in-text citations should include the author's last name followed by the year of publication. All publications cited in the text should be presented in an alphabetical list of references at the end of the manuscript. Submitted articles can be listed as (author(s), unpublished data). See their website for more information. Authors are responsible for checking the accuracy of all references. Manuscripts will not be considered if they do not conform to the APA citation guidelines.

References must be listed alphabetically in APA style:
[1] Anderson, A. K. (2005). Affective influences on the attentional dynamics supporting awareness. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 154, 258–281.
[2] Anderson, A. K., Christoff, K., Panitz, D., De Rosa, E., & Gabrieli, J. D. E. (2003). Neural correlates of the automatic processing of threat facial signals. Journal of Neuroscience, 23, 5627–5633.
[3] Armony, J. L., & Dolan, R. J. (2002). Modulation of spatial attention by fear-conditioned stimuli: An event-related fMRI study. Neuropsychologia, 40, 817–826.
[4] Beck, A. T., Epstein, N., Brown, G., & Steer, R. A. (1988). An inventory for measuring clinical anxiety: Psychometric properties. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56,893–897.
[5] Calvo, M. G., & Lang, P. J. (2004). Gaze patterns when looking at emotional pictures: Motivationally biased attention. Motivation and Emotion, 28, 221–243.
[6] Carretie, L., Hinojosa, J. A., Martin-Loeches, M., Mecado, F., & Tapia, M. (2004). Automatic attention to emotional stimuli: Neural correlates. Human Brain Mapping, 22, 290–299.

Copyright of your article
Authors submitting a manuscript do so on the understanding that they have read and agreed to the terms of the IOS Press Author Copyright Agreement.

Quoting from other publications
An author, when quoting from someone else's work or when considering reproducing figures or table from a book or journal article, should make sure that he is not infringing a copyright. Although in general an author may quote from other published works, he should obtain permission from the holder of the copyright if he wishes to make substantial extracts or to reproduce tables, plates or other figures. If the copyright holder is not the author of the quoted or reproduced material, it is recommended that the permission of the author should also be sought. Material in unpublished letters and manuscripts is also protected and must not be published unless permission has been obtained. Submission of a paper will be interpreted as a statement that the author has obtained all the necessary permission. A suitable acknowledgement of any borrowed material must always be made.

The corresponding author will receive a PDF proof and is asked to check this proof carefully (the publisher will execute a cursory check only). Corrections other than printer's errors, however, should be avoided. Costs arising from such corrections will be charged to the authors.


The Journal of Future Robot Life is a peer-reviewed journal. All articles submitted to the journal undergo a single blind peer review process. This means that the identity of the authors is known with the reviewers but the identity of the reviewers is not communicated to the authors.

All submitted manuscripts are subject to initial appraisal by the Editors-in-Chief, and, if found suitable for further consideration, to rigorous peer-review by independent, anonymous expert referees. Reasons to reject a paper in the pre-screening process could for example be because the work does not fall within the aims and scope, the writing is of poor quality, the instructions to authors were not followed or the presented work is not novel.

Papers deemed suitable to be reviewed will be assigned a handling editor. The handling editor will then invite reviewers to comment on the work. As a standard policy, decisions are based on a minimum of two reviews. The Editors-in-Chief strive to ensure a typical turnaround time of 1 month for a first decision.

Reviewers are asked to judge a paper on at least:

• Relevance to the journal
• Significance of results
• Depth of results
• Correctness of results
• Clarity of presentation

Based on the received reviews the handling editor will propose to the Editors-in-Chief a recommendation:

• Accept
• Minor revisions required
• Major revisions required
• Revise and Resubmit
• Reject

They mean the following:

  1. The manuscript is suitable for publication and only requires minor polishing; thus, no further reviews are requested.
  2. The authors are required to make moderate changes to their manuscript. The manuscript becomes acceptable for publication if the changes proposed by the reviewers and editors are successfully addressed. The revised manuscript will be examined by the Editors-in-Chief and possibly sent back to all (or a selection of) reviewers for a second round of reviews. Authors are requested to provide a letter to the reviewers detailing the improvements made for the resubmission.
  3. The manuscript cannot be accepted for publication in its current form. However, a major revision which addresses all issues raised by the reviewers may be acceptable for publication. The revised manuscript will undergo a full second round of review. Authors are requested to provide a letter to the reviewers detailing the improvements made for the resubmission.
  4. In its current form, the manuscript is not suitable for publication. A resubmission would require substantial revisions and is only encouraged in special cases.
  5. The manuscript is rejected as it is deemed to be out of scope, not relevant, or not meeting the journal’s quality standards in terms of significance, novelty, and/or presentation.

Authors are notified by the Editors-in-Chief, whose decision is final.