Language, intelligence, creativity, feelings – it is our brains that make these and many other human characteristics possible. Because the human brain is no ordinary organ, doctors are not the only ones interested in it. Psychologists, economists and lawyers are also attempting to unlock the secrets of the brain. In recent years, the methodology of brain research has become much more efficient. The techniques known as 'neuroimaging' now enable us to see how the brains of test subjects function, without resorting to operative surgery. Corresponding findings are now resulting in statements that relate to the psychological characteristics of the test subjects. In the view of the Swiss Centre for Technology Assessment TA-SWISS, this is a significant development, but one that needs to be carefully monitored and requires a broadly based debate. This book, the first technology assessment study of neuroimaging, makes a timely and interdisciplinary contribution to the debate on the application of neuroimaging in brain research. The study was also supported by the Swiss Academy of Medical Sciences (SAMS).