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This volume aims at providing an international synopsis of the present state of affairs: Which patient card applications are promising in the health sector?; Which other European countries will follow in introducing national insurance cards?; Why are professional card systems so important?; What is the present state of the European emergency pass?; Which legal conditions have to be created for a safe use of card systems? The book presents current applications in Europe, the USA, Canada, and Japan. In addition to this, it also covers results of the investigation: a detailed framework on how to install card systems in national health care systems by members of the European Concerted Action on patient and professional cards presented results. The state of affairs of the G-7 action on patient data cards is discussed.