The misuse of technical achievements of science created many disasters in the past. The potential misuse of recent discoveries and innovations of molecular biology can create more important epidemiological and biological accidents or mass tragedies than an influenza pandemic, the HIV / AIDS epidemic or SARS. Both NATO and the civilian spheres have to be prepared for rapid recognition, identification, prevention and treatment of such potential risks. This volume summarizes projects aiming to detect risks of biological toxins, superantigens and the modeling of their effects. Potential risks, detection and prevention of chronic and zoonotic infections are summarized in addition to interaction of human pathogens affecting biological risks. Specific applications of recent diagnostic procedures for rapid detection and identification of hazardous or unusual etiologic agents are summarized including new, high through-put diagnostic methods. Epidemiological and clinical aspects of disasters and recently developed philosophy for global prevention will be presented. Experimental vaccines and therapeutics including a new smallpox vaccine are included.