Today, there are big changes and differences between countries in matters of national defence. Gone are the huge engines of military industrial might, and struggling in their wake are networks upon networks of small and medium-sized enterprises (SME’s), groping with the harsh reality of survival in this new world. For the first time, many if not most of them, are being forced to deal with new issues such as product development, marketing to a civilian world, private-sector financing and adopting competitive business practices and generally living outside the shadow of the defence business. Crucial at this juncture is to provide forms of assistance to guide them over new ground. Most observers agree that most businesses are small or medium in size, in the sense that they are not large corporations. These businesses are the lynchpin of stable economic conditions and ultimately provide essential products and services to users. The failure of SME’s to convert successfully to civilian markets would cause a devastating blow to national economies. Accordingly, the need and importance of dealing with these defence conversion issues cannot be overstated. This book presents a collection of papers on the topic of defence-related small and medium enterprises and their challenge of readjustment in the 21st century.