Advances in Mathematical Modeling for Reliability discusses fundamental issues on mathematical modeling in reliability theory and its applications. Beginning with an extensive discussion of graphical modeling and Bayesian networks, the focus shifts towards repairable systems: a discussion about how sensitive availability calculations parameter choices, and emulators provide the potential to perform such calculations on complicated systems to a fair degree of accuracy and in a computationally efficient manner. Another issue that is addressed is how competing risks arise in reliability and maintenance analysis through the ways in which data is censored. Mixture failure rate modeling is also a point of discussion, as well as the signature of systems, where the properties of the system through the signature from the probability distributions on the lifetime of the components are distinguished. The last three topics of discussion are relations among aging and stochastic dependence, theoretical advances in modeling, inference and computation, and recent advances in recurrent event modeling and inference.