58 Books / subject Neurosciences
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- January 1997
- Apkarian, A.V., Ayrapetian, S.
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December 16, 2014 - An estimated 5 million Americans aged 65 and older have Alzheimer’s disease. As drug companies struggle to find a cure, new research from the National Runners’ and Walkers’ Health Study suggests that exercise earlier in life may substantially reduce Alzheimer’s disease mortality. The study, which appeared in an online prepublication from the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, involved over 154,000 runners and walkers who were followed for 11.6 years. There were 175 deaths where Alzheimer’s disease was diagnosed as an underlying or contributing cause of death during follow-up.
Patient Awakes from Post-Traumatic Minimally Conscious State after Administration of Depressant Drug
December 16, 2014 - A patient who had suffered a traumatic brain injury unexpectedly recovered full consciousness after the administration of midazolam, a mild depressant drug of the GABA A agonists family. This resulted in the first recorded case of an “awakening” from a minimally-conscious state (MCS) using this therapy. Although similar awakenings have been reported using other drugs, this dramatic result was unanticipated. It is reported in Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience.
Better Detection, Prevention, and Pre-Clinical Treatment: Three Effective Tools in the Fight Against Alzheimer’s Disease
December 5, 2014 - Detection, prevention, and preclinical treatment are three key areas that may make a difference in the battle to reduce the rapid rise of new Alzheimer’s disease (AD) cases every year. These three topics are the focus of an important new supplement to the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease.
November 19, 2014 - Researchers from the Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience (IoPPN) at King’s College London have proposed that repetitive negative thinking (RNT), a common symptom of many psychological disorders, may increase the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease.
November 18, 2014 - Two simple tests conducted during the neurological exam can help clinicians differentiate between early-stage Parkinson’s disease (PD) and atypical parkinsonism. By asking patients to perform a tandem gait test and inquiring whether they are still able to ride a bicycle, clinicians can ascertain whether medio-lateral balance is impaired, a defining characteristic of atypical parkinsonism. These findings are published in the Journal of Parkinson’s Disease.
October 22, 2014 - A new animal study published in the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease indicates that a diet including walnuts may have a beneficial effect in reducing the risk, delaying the onset, slowing the progression of, or preventing Alzheimer’s disease.
October 21, 2014 - White Canes provide low-tech assistance to the visually impaired, but some blind people object to their use because they are cumbersome, fail to detect elevated obstacles, or require long training periods to master. Electronic travel aids (ETAs) have the potential to improve navigation for the blind, but early versions had disadvantages that limited widespread adoption. A new ETA, the “EyeCane,” developed by a team of researchers at The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, expands the world of its users, allowing them to better estimate distance, navigate their environment, and avoid obstacles, according to a new study published in Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience.
October 8, 2014 - Before there are any telltale behavioural signs of dementia, a simple test that combines thinking and movement could point to those with a heightened risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease and who are already having visuomotor difficulties, according to new research out of York University.
UB researchers corroborate the neuroprotective effects of Sirtuin 1 activation on mice with Alzheimer’s disease
October 7, 2014 - A study coordinated by the University of Barcelona (UB) has described a mechanism that plays a key role in the evolution of Alzheimer’s disease. According to the paper published in the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, the activation of the protein Sirtuin 1 in a murine model with familial Alzheimer’s disease has neuroprotective effects. The study, based on the PhD thesis developed by the researcher David Porquet (UB), first describes Sirtuin 1 pathway in this murine model. Mercè Pallàs, from the Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutic Chemistry at the Faculty of Pharmacy of UB, coordinates the study. The Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL) and the August Pi i Sunyer Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBAPS) also collaborate in the study.
Marijuana compound may offer treatment for Alzheimer’s disease, University of South Florida preclinical study indicates
September 30, 2014 - Extremely low levels of the compound in marijuana known as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC, may slow or halt the progression of Alzheimer’s disease, a recent study from neuroscientists at the University of South Florida shows.
September 17, 2014 - Findings by researchers at the School of Public Health of Tianjin Medical University suggest that in a survival analysis of the cohorts, Type 2 diabetes mellitus with mild cognitive impairment (T2DM-MCI) accelerated the median progression to dementia by 2.74 years.
September 17, 2014 - Pollution in many cities threatens the brain development in children. Findings by University of Montana Professor Dr. Lilian Calderón-Garcidueñas, MA, MD, Ph.D., and her team of researchers reveal that children living in megacities are at increased risk for brain inflammation and neurodegenerative changes, including Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s disease.
September 11, 2014 - Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) can experience difficulties with food preparation and ingestion, which could contribute to poor nutrition and place them at risk for malnourishment. Published studies have also suggested that PD is associated with low weight, however, few studies included control groups. A report published in the Journal of Parkinson’s Disease counters this conclusion in patients with mild-to-moderate PD, finding that the incidence or risk of malnutrition is no different for patients with mild-to-moderate PD compared to healthy controls.
September 3, 2014 - Essen, Germany, September 2, 2014 – In a large population-based study of randomly selected participants in Germany, researchers found that mild cognitive impairment (MCI) occurred twice more often in individuals diagnosed with diabetes mellitus type 2. Interestingly, this strong association was only observed in middle-aged participants (50-65 years), whereas in older participants (66-80 years) the association vanished. This study is published in the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease.
September 1, 2014 - Tampa, FL -- Extremely low levels of the compound in marijuana known as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC, may slow or halt the progression of Alzheimer’s disease, a recent study from neuroscientists at the University of South Florida shows.
August 28, 2014 - Research published in the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease this week suggests healthy older adults are less capable of observing their own cognitive decline over an 18 month period than Cogstate’s computerized brief battery (CBB). The study, conducted by neuropsychologists, also indicated that close family members were unable to perceive decline in the cognitive behavior of their partner and trial participant in social settings.
August 27, 2014 - As part of the TARGET project funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, researchers at Freie Universität Berlin conducted a systematic literature search of all the available studies dealing with school shootings. The aim of the analysis was to clarify which social dynamics in the social network of perpetrators can be observed in advance as playing an important role in school shootings. Up to now, researchers had assumed that bullying between peers and the social exclusion of the perpetrators were the most prominent factors in school shootings. This study shows, however, that in many cases conflicts with teachers seemed to be a decisive factor in the school shooting cases investigated.
August 20, 2014 - Today, researchers at the Blanchette Rockefeller Neurosciences Institute (BRNI) announced findings from a new study entitled, “PKCe Deficits in Alzheimer’s Disease Brains and Skin Fibroblasts.” These new findings offer significant promise for a new therapeutic and diagnostic approach to Alzheimer's disease (AD) that has remained so refractory to effective and early drug treatment. This approach is now the major focus of ongoing clinical trials being conducted by at BRNI/Neurotrope, Inc. collaboration. In contrast to past strategies, this new therapeutic strategy now being clinically tested, not only removes the precursors to amyloid plaques and tangles, it also induces the growth of new synapses and prevents neuronal death.
Drexel University College of Medicine Research May Lead to Improved Alzheimer’s/ Vascular Dementia Diagnostic Guidelines
August 14, 2014 - Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) are the most common forms of dementia. Traditionally, these illnesses have been treated as separate clinical syndromes. But new research led by Drexel University College of Medicine suggests that AD and VaD have much more in common than diagnostic guidelines currently allow. The study is set for publication in the September edition of the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease.
Decline in Daily Functioning Related to Decreased Brain Activity in Early Stages of Alzheimer’s Disease
August 12, 2014 - Decline in daily functioning associated with Alzheimer’s disease is related to alterations in activity in certain regions of the brain, according to a study published in the August 2014 issue of the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease.
August 7, 2014 - In a long-term, large-scale population-based study of individuals aged 55 years or older in the general population researchers found that those diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) had a four-fold increased risk of developing dementia or Alzheimer’s disease (AD) compared to cognitively healthy individuals. Several risk factors including older age, positive APOE-ɛ4 status, low total cholesterol levels, and stroke, as well as specific MRI findings were associated with an increased risk of developing MCI. The results are published in a supplement to the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease.
August 6, 2014 - There have been several studies mapping out Alzheimer’s disease (AD) research using bibliometrics. One of these studies was instrumental in building the Top 100 Most Prolific AD Investigators and Top 100 Most Cited AD Investigators lists that you’ll find on the JAD website.
July 18, 2014 - New research from the University of Toronto Mississauga definitively puts to rest a theory that Lyme disease causes Alzheimer’s.
July 17, 2014 - People who develop a combination of mild cognitive problems and depressive symptoms in old age are more likely to develop Alzheimer’s than are their age peers with mild cognitive disorders and no symptoms of depression. This was the conclusion of a study conducted at the University of Antwerp, in which scientists followed a large group of elderly people with mild cognitive impairment. The study is appearing in a leading publication, the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease.
July 11, 2014 - Up to 70% of Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients experience sleep problems that negatively impact their quality of life. Some patients have disturbed sleep/wake patterns such as difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep, while other patients may be subject to sudden and involuntary daytime sleep “attacks.” In the extreme, PD patients may exhibit REM-sleep behavior disorder (RBD), characterized by vivid, violent dreams or dream re-enactment, even before motor symptoms appear. A review in the Journal of Parkinson’s Disease discusses the underlying causes of sleep problems in PD, as well as medications, disease pathology, and comorbidities, and describes the most appropriate diagnostic tools and treatment options.
July 3, 2014 - Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become a well-recognized non-pharmacologic treatment that improves motor symptoms of patients with early and advanced Parkinson’s disease. Evidence now indicates that DBS can decrease the number and severity of non motor symptoms of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) as well, according to a review published in the Journal of Parkinson’s Disease.
July 2, 2014 - Individuals with brain injury and their families often struggle to accept the associated personality changes. The behavior of individuals with acquired brain injury (ABI) is typically associated with problems such as aggression, agitation, non-compliance, and depression. Treatment goals often focus on changing the individual’s behavior, frequently using consequence-based procedures or medication. In the current issue of NeuroRehabilitation leading researchers challenge this approach and recommend moving emphasis from dysfunction to competence.
June 25, 2014 - A specific preparation of cocoa-extract called Lavado may reduce damage to nerve pathways seen in Alzheimer’s disease patients’ brains long before they develop symptoms, according to a study conducted at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and published June 20 in the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease (JAD).
June 24, 2014 - Although significant progress has been made over the last 25 years to identify genetic abnormalities associated with congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS), many patients remain genetically undiagnosed. A report in the inaugural issue of the Journal of Neuromuscular Diseases identifies a gene defect in mitochondria, specifically the citrate carrier SLC25A1, that may underlie deficits in neuromuscular transmission seen in two siblings.
May 28, 2014 - We are proud to announce that Bob Olsson, PhD, has been chosen as the recipient of the 2014 Alzheimer Award presented by the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease in recognition of his outstanding work on microglia markers and Alzheimer’s disease.
May 21, 2014 - A molecular compound developed by Saint Louis University scientists restored learning, memory and appropriate behavior in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease, according to findings in the May issue of the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease. The molecule also reduced inflammation in the part of the brain responsible for learning and memory.
May 6, 2014 - A follow-up study of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) who participated in an earlier “proof of concept” clinical trial using...
May 6, 2014 - Ads touting testosterone replacement therapy are ubiquitous on radio and television. But medical research has determined that its success at enhancing libido may come at a price.
April 9, 2014 - Two studies published in the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease indicate that some of the pathologic changes associated with Alzheimer’s disease in older individuals are not apparent in young people who carry the apolipoprotein (APOE) genetic risk factor for developing the disease. In the first study, no differences were found in hippocampal volume or asymmetry between cognitively normal adolescent carriers and non-carriers of the ApoE ɛ4 or ɛ2 allelles. The second study reports no differences in plasma concentrations of amyloid-β peptides among young adult ɛ4, ɛ3 or ɛ2 carriers.
March 19, 2014 - A team of scientists from the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, the Medical University of South Carolina and San Diego-based American Life Science Pharmaceuticals, Inc., report that cathepsin B gene knockout or its reduction by an enzyme inhibitor blocks creation of key neurotoxic pGlu-Aβ peptides linked to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Moreover, the candidate inhibitor drug has been shown to be safe in humans.
February 21, 2014 - Researchers studying peptides using the Gordon supercomputer at the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC) at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) have found new ways to elucidate the creation of the toxic oligomers associated with Alzheimer’s disease.
Neuropsychological assessment more efficient than MRI for tracking disease progression in memory clinic patients
February 19, 2014 - Investigators at the University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands, have shown that progression of disease in memory clinic patients can be tracked efficiently with 45 minutes of neuropsychological testing. MRI measures of brain atrophy were shown to be less reliable to pick up changes in the same patients.
February 5, 2014 - Using auditory or tactile stimulation, Sensory Substitution Devices (SSDs) provide representations of visual information and can help the blind “see” colors and shapes. SSDs scan images and transform the information into audio or touch signals that users are trained to understand, enabling them to recognize the image without seeing it.
February 4, 2014 - There is a growing need for Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy (CRT) due to the huge influx of soldiers returning from war zones with brain injuries, athletes with sports-related head injuries, and the growing population with age-related cognitive decline. This special collection of articles in NeuroRehabilitation illustrates the art and science of restoring mental functioning in those who have suffered a debilitating injury or who may otherwise have problems with attention, comprehension, learning, remembering, problem solving, reasoning, and processing.
January 31, 2014 - Download the 2014 Neuroscience Neurology Brochure here.
January 31, 2014 - About 80% of stroke survivors experience hemiparesis, which causes weakness or the inability to move one side of the body. Core stabilization exercise to improve postural stability and independent walking in chronic hemiparetic stroke patients could be enhanced by real-time video feedback, report researchers in Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience.
January 17, 2014 - A new study exploring vitamin D levels in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) opens up the possibility of a new avenue of early intervention that may delay or prevent the onset of cognitive impairment and depression. The findings are published in the Journal of Parkinson’s Disease.
New Research Suggests Changes in Parietal Brain Gray Matter Volume Associated with Memory Deficits in Early PD
January 17, 2014 - Research by a team of investigators in Finland suggests that the free recall memory deficits common even in early stages Parkinson’s disease (PD) are related to structural changes in the brain, specifically parietal cortical gray matter volume. Their findings are published in the current issue of the Journal of Parkinson’s Disease.
January 3, 2014 - Scientists know that vision restoration training (VRT) can help patients who have lost part of their vision due to glaucoma, optic nerve damage, or stroke regain some of their lost visual functions, but they do not understand what factors determine how much visual recovery is achieved.
January 2, 2014 - A team of Stony Brook University researchers led by William Van Nostrand, PhD, Professor in the Department of Neurosurgery, has discovered in a model of Alzheimer’s disease that early accumulation of a small protein, known as amyloid β, in the blood vessels of the brain can drive early cognitive impairment. The findings, published in the current online edition of the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, suggest that targeting early buildup of amyloid in brain blood vessels could be a potential treatment strategy in early stage disease.
December 19, 2013 - Australian researchers have identified lifestyle factors that impair women’s brain performance as early as age 45.
December 3, 2013 - At the first signs of memory loss, most people start worrying and wonder, “What if I have Alzheimer's disease?” And yet, the disease is often diagnosed late in its development and sometimes up to ten years after the first pathological changes have affected the brain. A major goal in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease has been to provide earlier diagnosis so that patients can receive treatment as early as possible. A study by Sylvie Belleville, PhD, Director of Research at the Institut universitaire de gériatrie de Montréal, an institution affiliated with Université de Montréal, has shown a way to do just that. In their study, Sylvie Belleville and her team accurately predicted (at a rate of 90%) which of their research subjects with mild cognitive impairment would receive a clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease within the following two years and which subjects would not develop this disease. The study was published in Volume 38, Issue 2 of the prestigious Journal of Alzheimer's Disease.
November 20, 2013 - Nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) is one of the leading causes of sudden and irreversible loss of vision in older adults. In a prospective randomized trial of 60 patients with NAION, investigators have shown that the addition of the corticosteroid fluocortolone (FC) to standard therapy significantly improves both short- and long-term visual acuity, especially when given soon after the onset of symptoms. Their results are published in Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience.
Prescription of anti-Alzheimer medications to persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is low in France
November 15, 2013 - In France prescription of drugs for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is strictly regulated. The Department of Public Health and the Memory Clinic of Nice University Hospital have explored real world prescriptions of anti-AD medications in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) not AD. A national survey  was set up from the data of the French National Alzheimer Databank (BNA) and shows that off label prescriptions are not frequent and concern 6.1% of MCI patients (versus a quarter of MCI patients in the US ). French physicians seem to limit this kind of prescription to MCI patients at risk of conversion to AD: more aged, with a more important quantitative cognitive impairment and with a memory predominant form. In a context of low efficacy of the available medications against AD this study emphasizes the need to develop more preventive drugs.
November 8, 2013 - A Columbia University Medical Center-led research team has clinically validated a new method for predicting time to full-time care, nursing home residence, or death for patients with Alzheimer’s disease. The method, which uses data gathered from a single patient visit, is based on a complex model of Alzheimer’s disease progression that the researchers developed by consecutively following two sets of Alzheimer’s patients for 10 years each. The results were published online ahead of print in the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease.
November 8, 2013 - As the population of older adults continues to grow, researchers at the University of Kentucky Sanders-Brown Center on Aging are engaged in work to understand the mechanisms of a variety of diseases that predominately affect those of advanced age.
New Study Links Depression in Newly Diagnosed Parkinson’s Disease Patients to Reduced Striatal Dopamine Synthesis
October 10, 2013 - According to the Parkinson’s Disease Foundation, up to 60% of individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD) exhibit mild to moderate depression, which is often underdiagnosed. It is unclear whether depression results from having a debilitating disease or reflects a parallel abnormal change in the brain caused by PD pathophysiology.
October 8, 2013 - Alzheimer’s disease (AD) affects millions of people worldwide. As a result of an increase in life expectancy, the number of patients with dementia is expected to increase dramatically. Due to the lack of effective treatments that can slow down or reverse the progression of AD, preventive measures to lower the prevalence rate of AD by means of managing potential or actual risk factors is a reasonable clinical strategy. In this respect, identifying treatable factors which are able to promote cognitive deterioration would have important practical implications.
Novel accelerometer-based algorithm detects early signals of Alzheimer’s disease in everyday motion behavior
October 8, 2013 - The projected substantial increase in Alzheimer’s disease due to the higher life expectancy in modern societies is one of the great future challenges of health care systems worldwide. Alzheimer’s disease leads to significant changes in the temporal structure of activities that impair everyday activities. Abnormal motion behavior and degeneration of the sleep-waking cycle are among the most severe behavioral symptoms. An early detection and even a prediction of these behaviors would allow a timely onset of interventions that aim to delay the manifestation or exacerbation of symptoms and reduce the need of institutionalized care.
September 25, 2013 - In a paper just published electronically in the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, dramatic increases in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in Japan and significant increases in developing countries are linked to changes in national diets.
August 27, 2013 - Of the 15 million people around the world who have survived poliomyelitis, up to 80% report progressive deteriorating strength and endurance many years after infection, a condition known as post-polio syndrome (PPS). Researchers in Italy from the National Hospital for Poliomyelitis, the Policlinico G.B. De Rossi in Verona, and the University of Milan have found that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for 15 days improved sleep and fatigue symptoms in patients with PPS, suggesting this non-invasive tool may be a new therapeutic option for this condition. Their results are published in Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience.
New Study Supports Intracerebral Injections of Bone Marrow-Derived Stem Cells to Prevent or Reduce Post-Stroke Cognitive Deficits
August 26, 2013 - Cognitive deficits following ischemic stroke are common and debilitating, even in the relatively few patients who are treated expeditiously so that clots are removed or dissolved rapidly and cerebral blood flow restored. A new study in Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience demonstrates that intracerebral injection of bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BSCs) reduces cognitive deficits produced by temporary occlusion of cerebral blood vessels in a rat model of stroke, suggesting that BSCs may offer a new approach for reducing post-stroke cognitive dysfunction.
Antisense Oligoneucleotide Corrects Striatal Transcriptional Abnormalities and Protects Function in HD Mice
August 26, 2013 - Findings from postmortem studies of the brains of Huntington’s Disease (HD) patients suggest that transcriptional dysregulation may be an early step in the pathogenesis of HD before symptoms appear. Other studies report transcriptional alterations in the brains of some mouse models of HD. A new study has found transcriptional changes in mouse striatum which correlate with progressive motor and psychiatric deficits and, most importantly, reports for the first time, that an antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) may be used therapeutically to both correct striatal transcriptional abnormalities and improve motor and behavioral problems. The article is published in the latest issue of the Journal of Huntington’s Disease.
August 26, 2013 - Alzheimer's disease has proven to be a difficult enemy to defeat. After all, aging is the No. 1 risk factor for the disorder, and there's no stopping that.
August 20, 2013 - A new study published in Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience demonstrates that Chinese herbal medicine Ji-Sui-Kang (JSK), given systemically for three weeks after injury in rats, improved locomotor function, reduced tissue damage, and preserved the structure of neural cells compared to control rats. The report also includes data showing that JSK may first act to reduce inflammation and cell apoptosis and death, and boost local oxygen supply while, later on, it appears to restore function and promote tissue regeneration.
August 8, 2013 - Mothers who breastfeed their children may have a lower risk of developing Alzheimer’s Disease, with longer periods of breastfeeding also lowering the overall risk, a new study suggests.
August 7, 2013 - New research out of the University of Maryland School of Public Health shows that exercise may improve cognitive function in those at risk for Alzheimer’s by improving the efficiency of brain activity associated with memory. Memory loss leading to Alzheimer’s disease is one of the greatest fears among older Americans. While some memory loss is normal and to be expected as we age, a diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment, or MCI, signals more substantial memory loss and a greater risk for Alzheimer’s, for which there currently is no cure.
August 5, 2013 - Investigators have linked aluminum accumulation in the brain as a possible contributing factor to neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease. A new study published in Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience sheds light on the mechanism underlying aluminum-induced neuronal cell death and identifies necrostatin-1 as a substance which counteracts several of aluminum’s neurotoxic effects.
August 1, 2013 - People with poor oral hygiene or gum disease may be at a greater risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease, a new...
July 3, 2013 - Multiple sclerosis (MS) can lead to severe cognitive impairment as the disease progresses. Researchers in Italy have found that patients with high educational levels show less impairment on a neuropsychological evaluation compared with those with low educational levels. Their results are published in Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience.
June 26, 2013 - For years, Alzheimer's researchers have focused on two proteins that accumulate in the brains of people with Alzheimer's and may contribute to the disease: plaques made up of the protein amyloid-beta, and tangles of another protein, called tau.
June 11, 2013 - The presence of Lewy bodies in nerve cells, formed by intracellular deposits of the protein α-synuclein, is a characteristic pathologic feature of Parkinson’s Disease (PD). In the quest for an animal model of PD that mimics motor and non-motor symptoms of human PD, scientists have developed strains of mice that overexpress α-synuclein. By studying a strain of mice bred to overexpress α-synuclein via the Thy-1 promoter, scientists have found these mice develop many of the age-related progressive motor symptoms of PD and demonstrate changes in sleep and anxiety. Their results are published in the latest issue of Journal of Parkinson’s Disease.
June 5, 2013 - Alzheimer researchers in Spain have taken a step closer to finding a blood test to help in the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease.
May 29, 2013 - Cinnamon: Can the red-brown spice with the unmistakable fragrance and variety of uses offer an important health benefit? The common baking spice might hold the key to delaying the onset of — or warding off — the effects of Alzheimer’s disease.
Traumatic Brain Injury Poses Complex Diagnostic, Management and Treatment Challenges in Older People
May 7, 2013 - Each year more than 1.7 million people in the United States sustain a traumatic brain injury (TBI). The incidence of TBI in older adults poses special diagnostic, management and treatment challenges, say experts in a special collection of papers on TBI in the elderly in NeuroRehabilitation: An Interdisciplinary Journal.
April 23, 2013 - Scientific progress in Huntington’s disease (HD) relies upon the availability of appropriate animal models that enable insights into the disease’s genetics and/or pathophysiology. Large animal models, such as domesticated farm animals, offer some distinct advantages over rodent models, including a larger brain that is amenable to imaging and intracerebral therapy, longer lifespan, and a more human-like neuro-architecture. Three articles in the latest issue of the Journal of Huntington’s Disease discuss the potential benefits of using large animal models in HD research and the implications for the development of gene therapy.
April 10, 2013 - Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is being increasingly explored as a therapeutic tool for movement disorders associated with deficient inhibition throughout the central nervous system. This includes treatment of focal hand dystonia (FHD), characterized by involuntary movement of the fingers either curling into the palm or extending outward. A new study published in Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience reports short-term changes in behavioral, physiologic, and clinical measures that support further research into the therapeutic potential of rTMS.
April 8, 2013 - Each year more than three million Americans are living with traumatic brain injury (TBI), a condition that is associated with physical, cognitive, and emotional problems that often affect their sexuality, and subsequently their marital stability, identity, and self-esteem. Taking an in-depth look at the impact of TBI on sexuality, an investigative team critically reviews fourteen studies representing a collective study sample of nearly 1,500 patients, partners, spouses, control individuals, and rehabilitation professionals to examine brain injury and sexuality. It is published in NeuroRehabilitation: An International Journal.
April 4, 2013 - In a study designed to differentiate why some stroke patients recover from aphasia and others do not, investigators have found that a compensatory reorganization of language function to right hemispheric brain regions bodes poorly for language recovery. Patients who recovered from aphasia showed a return to normal left-hemispheric language activation patterns. These results, which may open up new rehabilitation strategies, are available in the current issue of Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience.
April 4, 2013 - UCLA researchers have used a brain-imaging tool and stroke risk assessment to identify signs of cognitive decline early on in individuals who don't yet show symptoms of dementia.
April 2, 2013 - In a mouse model of early Parkinson’s disease (PD), animals displayed movement deficits, loss of tyrosine-hydroxylase (TH)-positive fibers in the striatum, and astro-gliosis and micro-gliosis in the substantia nigra (SN), without the loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons. These findings, which may cast light on the molecular processes involved in the initial stages of PD, are available in the current issue of Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience.
March 5, 2013 - People with probable amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have the most and closest risk of conversion to dementia, mainly Alzheimer’s disease (AD), according to a recent research of Fundació ACE, Barcelona Alzheimer Treatment and Research Center (www.fundacioace.com). That is, amnestic MCI subjects without any comorbidity that could explain their cognitive deficits have 8.5 times more risk to convert to dementia than people with non-amnestic MCI caused by cerebrovascular pathology or psycho-affective symptoms. Furthermore, a storage pattern of memory impairment, the multiple domain condition, and the presence of at least one ε4 allele increase the risk of conversion to dementia in MCI subjects.
February 19, 2013 - Administration of the active compound tetrahydroxystilbene glucoside (TSG) derived from the Chinese herbal medicine Polygonum multiflorum Thunb, reversed both overexpression of α-synuclein, a small protein found in the brain, and its accumulation using a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease. These results, which may shed light on the neuropathology of AD and open up new avenues of treatment, are available in the current issue of Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience.
February 14, 2013 - A large majority of the nation's top neurologists say they would use a recently approved amyloid detection brain scan to evaluate their patients for Alzheimer's disease if the scan was paid for by health insurance, according to a survey recently published in the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease.
February 7, 2013 - A team of academic researchers has pinpointed how vitamin D3 and omega-3 fatty acids may enhance the immune system's ability to clear the brain of amyloid plaques, one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease.
January 28, 2013 - Keeping active can slow down the progression of memory loss in people with Alzheimer’s disease, a study has shown. A team of researchers from The University of Nottingham has identified a stress hormone produced during moderate exercise that may protect the brain from memory changes related to the disease. The work, funded by Research into Ageing (Age UK) and the University and published in the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, may also explain why people who are susceptible to stress are at more risk of developing the disease.
January 21, 2013 - Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurological condition. At present, it is usually diagnosed only when motor features are present. Hence, there is a need to develop objective and measurable biomarkers to improve PD diagnostics during its earlier stage, prior to its motor onset. In this pilot study, researchers identified and tested the first blood-based circulating microRNA (miRNA) biomarkers for PD. Their results are published in the latest issue of Journal of Parkinson’s Disease.
January 16, 2013 - Approximately half a million individuals suffer strokes in the US each year, and about one in five develops some form of post-stroke aphasia, the partial or total loss of the ability to communicate. By comparing different types of aphasia, investigators have been able to gain new insights into the normal cognitive processes underlying language, as well as the potential response to interventions. Their findings are published alongside papers on hemispatial neglect and related disorders in the January, 2013 issue of Behavioural Neurology.
January 7, 2013 - Scientists have wrestled to understand why Huntington’s disease, which is caused by a single gene mutation, can produce such variable symptoms. An authoritative review by a group of leading experts summarizes the progress relating cell loss in the striatum and cerebral cortex to symptom profile in Huntington’s disease, suggesting a possible direction for developing targeted therapies. The article is published in the latest issue of the Journal of Huntington’s Disease.
December 5, 2012 - A software tool called PredictAD developed by VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland promises to enable earlier diagnosis of the disease on the basis of patient measurements and large databases. Alzheimer’s disease currently takes on average 20 months to diagnose in Europe. VTT has shown that the new method could allow as many as half of patients to get a diagnosis approximately a year earlier.
December 4, 2012 - Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are neurodevelopmental disorders typically characterized by difficulties in social interactions and delayed or abnormal language development. Although ASD reportedly affects 1 in 88 people in the United States, to date there have been no distinctive biomarkers to diagnose the disease. In a special themed issue of Disease Markers, investigators report on the current understanding of ASD genetics and the possibilities of translating genetic research toward biomarker development in ASD.
November 27, 2012 - Download the 2013 Neuroscience Neurology Brochure here.
November 6, 2012 - Over the last 15 years, researchers have found a significant association between vascular diseases such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes type 2, hyperlipidemia, and heart disease and an increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease. In a special issue of the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, leading experts provide a comprehensive overview of the pathological, biochemical, and physiological processes that contribute to Alzheimer’s disease risk and ways that may delay or reverse these age-related abnormalities.
Abnormal Involuntary Eye Movements in the “Lazy Eye” Disease Amblyopia Linked to Changes in Subcortical Regions of the Brain
October 17, 2012 - The neural mechanism underlying amblyopia, also called “lazy eye” is still not completely clear. A new study now reports abnormal eye movements of the lazy eye, which suggests that disturbed functioning of eye movement coordination between both eyes and not primarily the dysfunction of the visual cortex may be a cause of amblyopia (Xue-feng Shi et al.).
October 11, 2012 - Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that is associated with emotions, movement, and the brain’s pleasure and reward system. In the current issue of Advances in Neuroimmune Biology, investigators provide a broad overview of the direct and indirect role of dopamine in modulating the immune system and discuss how recent research has opened up new possibilities for treating diseases such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia, multiple sclerosis or even the autoimmune disorders.
October 1, 2012 - IOS Press is delighted to present the official inaugural issue of the International Journal of Developmental Science which includes a collection of short essay reviews about the merits of developmental science from some of the most renowned developmental scientist in the field.
August 30, 2012 - Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the most common brain disorders, with an estimated 35 million people affected worldwide. In the last decade, research has advanced our understanding of how AD affects the brain. However, diagnosis continues to rely primarily on neuropsychological tests which can only detect the disease after clinical symptoms begin. In a supplement to the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, investigators report on the development of imaging-based biomarkers that will have an impact on diagnosis before the disease process is set in motion.
Neural Interface for Hand Prosthesis Can Restore Function in Brain Areas Responsible for Motor Control
August 21, 2012 - Amputation disrupts not only the peripheral nervous system but also central structures of the brain. While the brain is able to adapt and compensate for injury in certain conditions, in amputees the traumatic event prevents adaptive cortical changes. A group of scientists reports adaptive plastic changes in an amputee’s brain following implantation of multielectrode arrays inside peripheral nerves. Their results are available in the current issue of Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience.
August 21, 2012 - Research has found that declines in temporal information processing (TIP), the rate at which auditory information is processed, underlies the progressive loss of function across multiple cognitive systems in the elderly, including new learning, memory, perception, attention, thinking, motor control, problem solving, and concept formation. In a new study, scientists have found that elderly subjects who underwent temporal training improved not only the rate at which they processed auditory information, but also in other cognitive areas. The study is published in the current issue of Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience.
July 9, 2012 - In the last ten years, a new understanding of pediatric brain injury and recovery has emerged. Professionals now understand that recovery may be a lifelong process for the child’s entire circle of family, friends, and healthcare providers. The latest efforts to advance medical and rehabilitative services to move children from medical care and rehabilitation to community reintegration are discussed by the leading experts in a recently published special issue of NeuroRehabilitation.
Music to My Eyes: Device Converting Images into Music Helps Individuals without Vision Reach for Objects in Space
July 9, 2012 - Sensory substitution devices (SSDs) use sound or touch to help the visually impaired perceive the visual scene surrounding them. The ideal SSD would assist not only in sensing the environment but also in performing daily activities based on this input. For example, accurately reaching for a coffee cup, or shaking a friend’s hand. In a new study, scientists trained blindfolded sighted participants to perform fast and accurate movements using a new SSD, called EyeMusic. Their results are published in the July issue of Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience.
July 2, 2012 - Growing evidence suggests that Parkinson’s disease (PD) often starts with non-motor symptoms that precede diagnosis by several years. In the first study to examine patterns in the quality of life of Parkinson’ disease patients prior to diagnosis, researchers have documented declines in physical and mental health, pain, and emotional health beginning several years before the onset of the disease and continuing thereafter. Their results are reported in the latest issue of Journal of Parkinson’s Disease.
July 2, 2012 - After stroke, patients often suffer from dysphagia, a swallowing disorder that results in greater healthcare costs and higher rates of complications such as dehydration, malnutrition, and pneumonia. In a new study published in the July issue of Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience, researchers have found that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), which applies weak electrical currents to the affected area of the brain, can enhance the outcome of swallowing therapy for post-stroke dysphagia.
June 26, 2012 - Our understanding of the causes and mechanisms of Huntington’s disease (HD) has grown at a dramatic pace since the discovery of the genetic marker for the disease in 1983. While therapies to treat the disease lag behind these laboratory discoveries, disease altering interventions are moving closer to the clinic. In the inaugural issue of the Journal of Huntington’s Disease Alice Wexler, PhD, an authority on the history of Huntington’s disease, author, and research scholar with the UCLA Center for the Study of Women, recounts important milestones along the journey towards a treatment or cure for the disease.
June 20, 2012 - Some Parkinson’s patients report that their motor function is better upon awakening in the morning, which is contrary to what would be expected after a night without medication. This phenomenon, known as sleep benefit, has been studied but no consistent variables have been found and in the last decade there has been little new research. A new study, published in the June issue of the Journal of Parkinson’s Disease, assesses a large sample of Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients and confirms that some patients experience sleep benefit, both overnight and following afternoon naps, but finds no significant variables between those who do benefit and those who do not.
Tai Chi Increases Brain Size and Benefits Cognition in Randomized Controlled Trial of Chinese Elderly
June 20, 2012 - Scientists from the University of South Florida and Fudan University in Shanghai found increases in brain volume and improvements on tests of memory and thinking in Chinese seniors who practiced Tai Chi three times a week, reports an article published today in the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease.
June 19, 2012 - Studies suggest that neurotrophic factors, which play a role in the development and survival of neurons, have significant therapeutic and restorative potential for neurologic diseases such as Huntington’s disease. However, clinical applications are limited because these proteins cannot easily cross the blood brain barrier, have a short half-life, and cause serious side effects. Now, a group of scientists has successfully treated neurological symptoms in laboratory rats by implanting a device to deliver a genetically engineered neurotrophic factor directly to the brain. They report on their results in the latest issue of Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience.
June 19, 2012 - Two new studies published in the inaugural issue of the Journal of Huntington's Disease hint at possible approaches to protect those at risk for HD.
June 15, 2012 - No effective treatments are currently available for the prevention or cure of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the most frequent form of dementia in the elderly. The most recognized risk factors, advancing age and having the apolipoprotein E Ɛ4 gene, cannot be modified or treated. Increasingly, scientists are looking toward other risk factors to identify preventive and therapeutic strategies. Much attention recently has focused on the metabolic syndrome (MetS), with a strong and growing body of research suggesting that metabolic disorders and obesity may play a role in the development of dementia.
June 6, 2012 - Research shows drinking coffee can avoid the onset of Alzheimer's Disease in people over 65 years old.
Scientists Reveal Early Diagnostic Clues for Alzheimer’s Disease Using Advanced Brain Imaging Technology
May 3, 2012 - Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a major neurodegenerative disorder that affects millions of people worldwide. New and accurate techniques for early...
May 2, 2012 - Anders Lönneborg, PhD, has been chosen as the recipient of the 2012 Alzheimer Award presented by the Journal of Alzheimer’s...
October 19, 2011 - Within the next 20 years it is expected the number of people with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) will double from its current figure of half a million to one million. A new study has looked at whether certain types of drugs used to treat high blood pressure, also called hypertension, might have beneficial effects in reducing the number of new cases of Alzheimer’s disease each year.
October 11, 2011 - Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a common problem that is becoming progressively burdensome throughout the world. A new supplement to the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, Imaging the Alzheimer Brain, clearly shows that multiple imaging systems are now available to help understand, diagnose, and treat the disease.
September 7, 2011 - UK scientists have uncovered how a known risk gene for Alzheimer’s might play a role in the development of the disease. The study – which was funded by Alzheimer’s Society and Alzheimer’s Research UK – provides an exciting new area of investigation for researchers developing treatments and ultimately a cure for the disease. It is being published in the current issue of the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease.