Intelligent Decision Technologies

An International Journal

ISSN print
ISSN online
9; 4 issues
Last issue (9:1) online on 13 January 2015
Next issue
9:2 scheduled for March 2015
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Artificial Intelligence, Computer & Communication Sciences, Computer Science
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A refereed international scholarly journal, Intelligent Decision Technologies (IDT) welcomes original research contributions on the fundamental concepts and applications of intelligent systems that support decision making. Manuscripts are published on such diverse areas as artificial intelligence, fuzzy techniques, genetic algorithms, intelligent agents, multi-agent systems, cognitive science, mathematical modeling, neural systems/neural networks, computer-supported cooperative work, geographic information systems, user interface management systems, informatics, knowledge representation, applications of intelligent systems and others.

The field of intelligent decision technologies is interdisciplinary in nature, bridging computer science with its development of artificial intelligence, information systems with its development of decision support systems, and engineering with its development of systems. IDT seeks to attract research that is focused on applied technology while exploring its development at a fundamental level. IDT seeks an interchange of research on intelligent systems and intelligent technologies which enhance or improve decision-making in industry, government and academia. IDT publishes research on all aspects of intelligent decision technologies, from fundamental development to the applied system. The journal is concerned with theory, design, development, implementation, testing and evaluation of intelligent decision systems that have the potential to support decision making in the areas of management, international business, finance, accounting, marketing, healthcare, military applications, production, networks, traffic management, crisis response, human interfaces and other applied fields.

The target audience is researchers in computer science, business, commerce, health science, management, engineering and information systems that develop and apply intelligent decision technologies. Authors are invited to submit original unpublished work that is not under consideration for publication elsewhere.

Prof. Dr. Gloria Phillips-Wren
Information Systems and Operations Management
The Sellinger School of Business and Management
Loyola University Maryland
4501 North Charles Street
Baltimore, MD 21210

Dr. Lakhmi C. Jain
Adjunct Professor
Faculty of Education, Science, Technology and Mathematics
University of Canberra
ACT 2601
School of Engineering
University of South Australia
Mawson Lakes Campus,
Adelaide SA, 5095

Prof. Junzo Watada     
Graduate School of Information, Production & Systems
Waseda University     
2-7 Hibikino, Wakamatsu
Kita-Kyushu 808-0135

Honorary Editor
Dr. Robert Howlett
KES International
United Kingdom

Associate Editors
Prof. Valentina Emilia Balas
„Aurel Vlaicu” University of Arad
Faculty of Engineering
Department of Automation and Applied Informatics
77 B-dul Revolutiei
310130 Arad

Prof. Dr. Sheryl Brahnam
Computer Information Systems
Missouri State University
Glass Hall 387
Springfield MO 65804

Prof. Margarita Favorskaya
Siberian State Aerospace University
Institute of Informatics and Telecommunications
31 Krasnoyarsky Rabochy
Krasnoyarsk 660014
Russian Federation

Prof. Dr. Manuel Graña
Facultad de Informatica UPV/EHU
Paseo Manuel Lardizabal 1
20018 Dosnostia-San Sebastian

Prof. Dr. Mirjana Ivanovic
Faculty of Science
Department of Mathematics and Informatics Chair of Computer Science
University of Novi Sad
Trg Dositeja Obradovica 4
21 000 Novi Sad

Prof. Dr. Amit Konar
Dept. of Electronics and Tele-Communication Engineering
Jadavpur University
Calcutta- 32

Dr. Chee Peng Lim
Centre for Intelligent Systems Research
Deakin University
Geelong Waurn Ponds Campus
75, Pigdons Road, Waurn Ponds
VIC 3216

Prof. Dr. Carlo Francesco Morabito
Department of Mechanics and Materials
Mediterranea University of Reggio Calabria
Via Graziella Feo di Vito
89122 Reggio Calabria

Prof. Dr. Rui Neves-Silva
Universidade Nova de Lisboa
FCT Campus
2815-730 Caparica

Prof. Dr. Yukio Ohsawa
Department of Systems Innovation
School of Engineering
The University of Tokyo
113-8656 Tokyo

Prof. Dr. Vladimir Uskov
Bradley University
1501 West Bradley Avenue
Peoria, Illinois 61625

Advisory Board
Prof. Bruno Apolloni
Dipartimento di Informatica
University of Milano
Via Comelico 39
20135 Milano

Prof. Philippe De Wilde
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot Watt University
Edinburgh EH14 4AS


Prof. Ignac Lovrek, Ph.D.
Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing
University of Zagreb
Unska 3
HR-10000 Zagreb

Prof. Dharmendra Sharma
Faculty of Education, Science, Technology & Mathematics
University of Canberra
ACT 2601

Prof. Barry G. Silverman
Professor of Systems Science and Engineering
Hayden Hall (Rm 120)
3340 South 33rd Street
University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, PA 19104-6316

Prof. Gheorghe Tecuci
Learning Agents Center
MSN 6B3, Room 4613, Engineering Building
The Volgenau School of Engineering
George Mason University
4400 University Drive
Fairfax, VA 22030-4444

Prof. George A. Tsihrintzis

Department of Informatics

University of Piraeus

Piraeus 185 34


Prof. Maria Virvou
Department of Informatics
University of Piraeus
80, Karaoli & Dimitriou St.
Piraeus 18534

Prof. Hiro Yoshida
Department of Radiology
Massachusetts General Hospital
Harvard Medical School
25 New Chardon St, Suite 400C
Boston, MA 02114

Editorial Board
Jair M. Abe
University of São Paulo

Canicious Abeynayake
Defence Science and Technology Organisation

Fred Adam 
University College Cork

Bala M.  Balachandran
University of Canberra

Marius M. Balas
Aurel Vlaicu University of Arad

Vivek Bannore
Alphawest Services Pty Ltd

Monica Bianchini 
University of Siena

Isabelle Bichindaritz
SUNY Oswego

Gloria Bordogna

Ana Rita Campos 

Giovanna Castellano
University of Bari

Barbara Catania
University of Genoa

Mihaela Costin
Computer Science Institute of Academy, Iasi

Ireneusz Czarnowski
Gdynia Maritime University

Anna Esposito
Second University of Naples

Arthur Filippidis

Maria Ganzha
University of Gdańsk

Petia Georgieva
Informatics University of Aveiro

Anne Håkansson
KTH Royal Institute of Technology

Alex Hariz
University of South Australia


Arturas Kaklauskas
Vilnius Gediminas Technical University

Anastasia N. Kastania
Athens University of Economics and Business

Boris Kovalerchuk
Central Washington University

Halina Kwasnicka
Wroclaw University of Technology

Minhua Ma
University of Glasgow

Rosa Meo
Università degli Studi di Torino 

Lyudmila Mihaylova
University of Sheffield

Stefania Montani
Universita' del Piemonte Orientale

Manuel Mora
Autonomous University of Aguascalientes

Kazumi Nakamatsu
University of Hyogo

Zorica Nedic
University of South Australia 

Viorel Nicolau
Dunarea de Jos University of Galati

Maria do Carmo Nicoletti
UFSCar (Federal University of S. Carlos)

Vasile Palade
University of Oxford

Gabriella Pasi
Università degli Studi di Milano Bicocca

Nilesh Patel 
Oakland University

Camelia Pintea
Technical University of Cluj-Napoca

Jens Pohl
California Polytechnic State University

Nicolaie Popescu-Bodorin
Lumina University

Dan Power
University of Northern Iowa

Lucian Prodan
Politechnica University of Timisoara

Gabriela Prostean
Politehnica University of Timisoara

Roy Rada
University of Maryland Baltimore County

Ana Respício
Universidade de Lisboa

Rastko R. Selmic
Louisiana Tech University

Christos Sioutis
Defence Science and Technology Organisation

Urszula Stańczyk
Silesian University of Technology

Jeff Tweedale
Defence Science and Technology Organisation

Snejana Yordanova
Technical University of Sofia

Pascale Zaraté
University of Tolouse


Authors are requested to submit their manuscript electronically through the online submission system.

Contact one of the Editors-in-Chief if you need help.

Prof. Dr. Gloria Phillips-Wren

Prof. Dr. Lakhmi C. Jain

Prof. Junzo Watada

Required files for final submissions
After the article has been accepted, the authors should submit the final version as source files, including a word processor file of the text, such as Word or LateX (If using LaTeX, please use the standard article.sty as a style file and also send a PDF version of the LaTeX file).

Colour figures
It is possible to have figures printed in colour, provided the cost of their reproduction is paid for by the author. See Preparation of Manuscripts for the required file formats.

Open Access option
The IOS Press Open Library® offers authors an Open Access (OA) option. By selecting the OA option, the article will be freely available from the moment it is published, also in the pre-press module. In the Open Library® the article processing charges are paid in the form of an Open Access Fee. Authors will receive an Open Access Order Form upon acceptance of their article. Open Access is entirely optional.
See also our website for more information about this option IOS Press Open Library®


Organization of the paper and style of presentation
Manuscripts must be written in English. Authors whose native language is not English are advised to seek the advice of a native English speaker, before submitting their manuscripts.

International Science Editing offers a language and copyediting service to all scientists who want to publish their manuscript in scientific peer-reviewed periodicals and books.

Manuscripts should be prepared with wide margins and double spacing throughout, including the abstract, footnotes and references. Every page of the manuscript, including the title page, references, tables, etc., should be numbered. However, in the text no reference should be made to page numbers; if necessary, one may refer to sections. Try to avoid the excessive use of italics and bold face.

Manuscripts should be organized in the following order:

  • Title page
  • Body of text (divided by subheadings)
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Tables
  • Figure captions
  • Figures
  • Headings and subheadings should be numbered and typed on a separate line, without indentation.

    SI units should be used, i.e., the units based on the metre, kilogramme, second, etc.

    Title page
    The title page should provide the following information:

  • Title (should be clear, descriptive and not too long)
  • Name(s) of author(s); please indicate who is the corresponding author
  • Full affiliation(s)
  • Present address of author(s), if different from affiliation
  • Complete address of corresponding author, including tel. no., fax no. and e-mail address
  • Abstract; should be clear, descriptive, self-explanatory and not longer than 200 words, it should also be suitable for publication in abstracting services
  • Keywords
  • Tables
    Number as Table 1, Table 2 etc, and refer to all of them in the text.

    Each table should be provided on a separate page of the manuscript. Tables should not be included in the text.

    Each table should have a brief and self-explanatory title.

    Column headings should be brief, but sufficiently explanatory. Standard abbreviations of units of measurement should be added between parentheses.

    Vertical lines should not be used to separate columns. Leave some extra space between the columns instead.

    Any explanations essential to the understanding of the table should be given in footnotes at the bottom of the table.



    Place citations as numbers in square brackets in the text. All publications cited in the text should be presented in an alphabetical list of references at the end of the manuscript in the following style:

    [1] B. Newman and E.T. Liu, Perspective on BRCA1, Breast Disease 10 (1998), 3-10.
    [2] D.F. Pilkey, Happy conservation laws, in: Neural Stresses, J. Frost, ed., Controlled Press, Georgia, 1995, pp. 332-391.
    [3] E. Wilson, Active vibration analysis of thin-walled beams, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Virginia, 1991.

    Footnotes should only be used if absolutely essential. In most cases it is possible to incorporate the information in the text.

    • If used, they should be numbered in the text, indicated by superscript numbers and kept as short as possible.


    Number figures as Fig. 1, Fig. 2, etc and refer to all of them in the text.

    Each figure should be provided on a separate sheet. Figures should not be included in the text.

    Colour figures can be included, provided the cost of their reproduction is paid for by the author.

    For the file formats of the figures please take the following into account:

  • Line art should be have a minimum resolution of 600 dpi, save as EPS or TIFF
  • Grayscales (incl photos) should have a minimum resolution of 300 dpi (no lettering), or 500 dpi (when there is lettering); save as tiff
  • Do not save figures as JPEG, this format may lose information in the process
  • Do not use figures taken from the Internet, the resolution will be too low for printing
  • Do not use colour in your figures if they are to be printed in black & white, as this will reduce the print quality (note that in software often the default is colour, you should change the settings)
  • For figures that should be printed in colour, please send a CMYK encoded EPS or TIFF
  • Figures should be designed with the format of the page of the journal in mind. They should be of such a size as to allow a reduction of 50%.

    On maps and other figures where a scale is needed, use bar scales rather than numerical ones, i.e., do not use scales of the type 1:10,000. This avoids problems if the figures need to be reduced.

    Each figure should have a self-explanatory caption. The captions to all figures should be typed on a separate sheet of the manuscript.

    Photographs are only acceptable if they have good contrast and intensity.


    Copyright of your article
    Authors submitting a manuscript do so on the understanding that they have read and agreed to the terms of the IOS Press Author Copyright Agreement.

    Quoting from other publications
    An author, when quoting from someone else's work or when considering reproducing figures or table from a book or journal article, should make sure that he is not infringing a copyright. Although in general an author may quote from other published works, he should obtain permission from the holder of the copyright if he wishes to make substantial extracts or to reproduce tables, plates or other figures. If the copyright holder is not the author of the quoted or reproduced material, it is recommended that the permission of the author should also be sought. Material in unpublished letters and manuscripts is also protected and must not be published unless permission has been obtained. Submission of a paper will be interpreted as a statement that the author has obtained all the necessary permission. A suitable acknowledgement of any borrowed material must always be made.



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    Visual alerts shown to evoke quicker reactions than alerts through other senses

    27 Feb 2012 -

    New research has shown that visual alerting methods are still considered to be the most trustworthy, as compared to auditory or tactile alerts. This is shown by research conducted by a team of scientists at Old Dominion University in Norfolk, VA, USA.

    The research Alert Characteristics and Identification of Avatars on a Virtual Battlefield by James P. Bliss, Rachel Liebman and J. Christopher Brill is published in the current issue (6:2) of the journal Intelligent Decision Technologies.

    Most research to date has been limited to the visual or auditory signal modality. The question of how signal reliability interacts with signal modality to impact reaction behaviors is important with regard to applied environments such as the military battlefield.

    In the study, thirty undergraduate students completed two sessions of a virtual reconnaissance mission. During each session, they received ten alerts about nearly opposing forces. They indicated trust or distrust of each alert, and subsequently identified the avatar as friend or foe. Results indicated that participants trusted more historically reliable alerts, and that they showed quicker identification behaviour for visually presented alerts.