The fundamental concept developed in this book is that in order to achieve security in a complex world, it is essential to ensure that we have sufficient variety available to cope with complexity and its potential dangers. The book develops many facets of this idea, covering all major contemporary world issues, including energy, food and environmental security, climate change, economic transitions, and the role of technology. Encompassing a uniquely diverse collection of viewpoints, this book achieves a highly original contribution to the debate about where our civilization is heading. Airy speculation is however eschewed: arguments are developed on the basis of solid evidence available to all. This book by no means attempts to have the last word: it invites response and debate. Above all, it contributes to deepening understanding of what it means to be human in the face of our ever-growing knowledge about the universe and its nature. And, the ideas developed lead to some surprisingly definite conclusions about the policies to be promulgated in the future.